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Posted on • Originally published at kubernetes.io on

Blog: Updated: Dockershim Removal FAQ

This is an update to the original Dockershim Deprecation FAQ article, published in late 2020.

This document goes over some frequently asked questions regarding the deprecation and removal of dockershim, that wasannouncedas a part of the Kubernetes v1.20 release. For more detail on what that means, check out the blog postDon't Panic: Kubernetes and Docker.

Also, you can read check whether dockershim removal affects youto determine how much impact the removal of dockershim would have for you or for your organization.

As the Kubernetes 1.24 release has become imminent, we've been working hard to try to make this a smooth transition.

Why is the dockershim being removed from Kubernetes?

Early versions of Kubernetes only worked with a specific container runtime: Docker Engine. Later, Kubernetes added support for working with other container runtimes. The CRI standard was created to enable interoperability between orchestrators (like Kubernetes) and many different container runtimes. Docker Engine doesn't implement that interface (CRI), so the Kubernetes project created special code to help with the transition, and made that dockershim code part of Kubernetes itself.

The dockershim code was always intended to be a temporary solution (hence the name: shim). You can read more about the community discussion and planning in theDockershim Removal Kubernetes Enhancement Proposal. In fact, maintaining dockershim had become a heavy burden on the Kubernetes maintainers.

Additionally, features that were largely incompatible with the dockershim, such as cgroups v2 and user namespaces are being implemented in these newer CRI runtimes. Removing support for the dockershim will allow further development in those areas.

Can I still use Docker Engine in Kubernetes 1.23?

Yes, the only thing changed in 1.20 is a single warning log printed at kubeletstartup if using Docker Engine as the runtime. You'll see this warning in all versions up to 1.23. The dockershim removal occurs in Kubernetes 1.24.

When will dockershim be removed?

Given the impact of this change, we are using an extended deprecation timeline. Removal of dockershim is scheduled for Kubernetes v1.24, see Dockershim Removal Kubernetes Enhancement Proposal. The Kubernetes project will be working closely with vendors and other ecosystem groups to ensure a smooth transition and will evaluate things as the situation evolves.

Can I still use Docker Engine as my container runtime?

First off, if you use Docker on your own PC to develop or test containers: nothing changes. You can still use Docker locally no matter what container runtime(s) you use for your Kubernetes clusters. Containers make this kind of interoperability possible.

Mirantis and Docker have committed to maintaining a replacement adapter for Docker Engine, and to maintain that adapter even after the in-tree dockershim is removed from Kubernetes. The replacement adapter is named cri-dockerd.

Will my existing container images still work?

Yes, the images produced from docker build will work with all CRI implementations. All your existing images will still work exactly the same.

What about private images?

Yes. All CRI runtimes support the same pull secrets configuration used in Kubernetes, either via the PodSpec or ServiceAccount.

Are Docker and containers the same thing?

Docker popularized the Linux containers pattern and has been instrumental in developing the underlying technology, however containers in Linux have existed for a long time. The container ecosystem has grown to be much broader than just Docker. Standards like OCI and CRI have helped many tools grow and thrive in our ecosystem, some replacing aspects of Docker while others enhance existing functionality.

Are there examples of folks using other runtimes in production today?

All Kubernetes project produced artifacts (Kubernetes binaries) are validated with each release.

Additionally, the kind project has been using containerd for some time and has seen an improvement in stability for its use case. Kind and containerd are leveraged multiple times every day to validate any changes to the Kubernetes codebase. Other related projects follow a similar pattern as well, demonstrating the stability and usability of other container runtimes. As an example, OpenShift 4.x has been using the CRI-O runtime in production since June 2019.

For other examples and references you can look at the adopters of containerd and CRI-O, two container runtimes under the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF).

People keep referencing OCI, what is that?

OCI stands for the Open Container Initiative, which standardized many of the interfaces between container tools and technologies. They maintain a standard specification for packaging container images (OCI image-spec) and running containers (OCI runtime-spec). They also maintain an actual implementation of the runtime-spec in the form of runc, which is the underlying default runtime for bothcontainerd and CRI-O. The CRI builds on these low-level specifications to provide an end-to-end standard for managing containers.

Which CRI implementation should I use?

That’s a complex question and it depends on a lot of factors. If Docker is working for you, moving to containerd should be a relatively easy swap and will have strictly better performance and less overhead. However, we encourage you to explore all the options from the CNCF landscape in case another would be an even better fit for your environment.

What should I look out for when changing CRI implementations?

While the underlying containerization code is the same between Docker and most CRIs (including containerd), there are a few differences around the edges. Some common things to consider when migrating are:

  • Logging configuration
  • Runtime resource limitations
  • Node provisioning scripts that call docker or use docker via it's control socket
  • Kubectl plugins that require docker CLI or the control socket
  • Tools from the Kubernetes project that require direct access to Docker Engine (for example: the deprecated kube-imagepuller tool)
  • Configuration of functionality like registry-mirrors and insecure registries
  • Other support scripts or daemons that expect Docker Engine to be available and are run outside of Kubernetes (for example, monitoring or security agents)
  • GPUs or special hardware and how they integrate with your runtime and Kubernetes

If you use Kubernetes resource requests/limits or file-based log collection DaemonSets then they will continue to work the same, but if you’ve customized your dockerd configuration, you’ll need to adapt that for your new container runtime where possible.

Another thing to look out for is anything expecting to run for system maintenance or nested inside a container when building images will no longer work. For the former, you can use the crictl tool as a drop-in replacement (see mapping from docker cli to crictl) and for the latter you can use newer container build options like img, buildah,kaniko, or buildkit-cli-for-kubectl that don’t require Docker.

For containerd, you can start with their documentation to see what configuration options are available as you migrate things over.

For instructions on how to use containerd and CRI-O with Kubernetes, see the Kubernetes documentation on Container Runtimes.

What if I have more questions?

If you use a vendor-supported Kubernetes distribution, you can ask them about upgrade plans for their products. For end-user questions, please post them to our end user community forum: https://discuss.kubernetes.io/.

You can discuss the decision to remove dockershim via a dedicatedGitHub issue.

You can also check out the excellent blog postWait, Docker is deprecated in Kubernetes now? a more in-depth technical discussion of the changes.

Is there any tooling that can help me find dockershim in use

Yes! The Detector for Docker Socket (DDS) is a kubectl plugin that you can install and then use to check your cluster. DDS can detect if active Kubernetes workloads are mounting the Docker Engine socket (docker.sock) as a volume. Find more details and usage patterns in the DDS project's README.

Can I have a hug?

Yes, we're still giving hugs as requested. πŸ€—πŸ€—πŸ€—

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