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Roshan Thapa
Roshan Thapa

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A Collection of 25 Awesome Python Scripts (mini projects with code )

In this lesson, I've compiled a collection of 25 Python programmes. I've included links to learn more about each script, such as packages installation and how to execute script?.

1. Convert JSON to CSV

import json
if __name__ == '__main__':
        with open('input.json', 'r') as f:
            data = json.loads(f.read())

        output = ','.join([*data[0]])
        for obj in data:
            output += f'\n{obj["Name"]},{obj["age"]},{obj["birthyear"]}'

        with open('output.csv', 'w') as f:
    except Exception as ex:
        print(f'Error: {str(ex)}')
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2. Password Generator

import random
import string
total = string.ascii_letters + string.digits + string.punctuation
length = 16
password = "".join(random.sample(total, length))
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3. String search from multiple files

import os
text = input("input text : ")
path = input("path : ")
# os.chdir(path)
def getfiles(path):
    f = 0
    files = os.listdir()
    # print(files)
    for file_name in files:
        abs_path = os.path.abspath(file_name)
        if os.path.isdir(abs_path):
        if os.path.isfile(abs_path):
            f = open(file_name, "r")
            if text in f.read():
                f = 1
                print(text + " found in ")
                final_path = os.path.abspath(file_name)
                return True
    if f == 1:
        print(text + " not found! ")
        return False

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4. Fetch all links from a given webpage

import requests as rq
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

url = input("Enter Link: ")
if ("https" or "http") in url:
    data = rq.get(url)
    data = rq.get("https://" + url)
soup = BeautifulSoup(data.text, "html.parser")
links = []
for link in soup.find_all("a"):

# Writing the output to a file (myLinks.txt) instead of to stdout
# You can change 'a' to 'w' to overwrite the file each time
with open("myLinks.txt", 'a') as saved:
    print(links[:10], file=saved)
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5. Image Watermarking

import os
from PIL import Image

def watermark_photo(input_image_path,watermark_image_path,output_image_path):
    base_image = Image.open(input_image_path)
    watermark = Image.open(watermark_image_path).convert("RGBA")
    # add watermark to your image
    position = base_image.size
    newsize = (int(position[0]*8/100),int(position[0]*8/100))
    # print(position)
    watermark = watermark.resize(newsize)
    # print(newsize)
    # return watermark

    new_position = position[0]-newsize[0]-20,position[1]-newsize[1]-20
    # create a new transparent image
    transparent = Image.new(mode='RGBA',size=position,color=(0,0,0,0))
    # paste the original image
    # paste the watermark image
    image_mode = base_image.mode
    if image_mode == 'RGB':
        transparent = transparent.convert(image_mode)
        transparent = transparent.convert('P')

folder = input("Enter Folder Path:")
watermark = input("Enter Watermark Path:")
files = os.listdir(os.getcwd())

if not os.path.isdir("output"):

c = 1
for f in files:
    if os.path.isfile(os.path.abspath(f)):
        if f.endswith(".png") or f.endswith(".jpg"):
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6. Scrap and Download all images from the WEB Page

from selenium import webdriver
import requests as rq
import os
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
import time

# path= E:\web scraping\chromedriver_win32\chromedriver.exe
path = input("Enter Path : ")

url = input("Enter URL : ")

output = "output"

def get_url(path, url):
    driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path=r"{}".format(path))
    res = driver.execute_script("return document.documentElement.outerHTML")

    return res

def get_img_links(res):
    soup = BeautifulSoup(res, "lxml")
    imglinks = soup.find_all("img", src=True)
    return imglinks

def download_img(img_link, index):
        extensions = [".jpeg", ".jpg", ".png", ".gif"]
        extension = ".jpg"
        for exe in extensions:
            if img_link.find(exe) > 0:
                extension = exe

        img_data = rq.get(img_link).content
        with open(output + "\\" + str(index + 1) + extension, "wb+") as f:

    except Exception:

result = get_url(path, url)
img_links = get_img_links(result)
if not os.path.isdir(output):

for index, img_link in enumerate(img_links):
    img_link = img_link["src"]
    if img_link:
        download_img(img_link, index)
print("Download Complete!!")
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7. Low Battery Notification

# pip install psutil
import psutil

battery = psutil.sensors_battery()
plugged = battery.power_plugged
percent = battery.percent

if percent <= 30 and plugged!=True:

    # pip install py-notifier
    # pip install win10toast
    from pynotifier import Notification

        title="Battery Low",
        description=str(percent) + "% Battery remain!!",
        duration=5,  # Duration in seconds

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8. Calculate Your Age

import time
from calendar import isleap

# judge the leap year
def judge_leap_year(year):
    if isleap(year):
        return True
        return False

# returns the number of days in each month
def month_days(month, leap_year):
    if month in [1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12]:
        return 31
    elif month in [4, 6, 9, 11]:
        return 30
    elif month == 2 and leap_year:
        return 29
    elif month == 2 and (not leap_year):
        return 28

name = input("input your name: ")
age = input("input your age: ")
localtime = time.localtime(time.time())

year = int(age)
month = year * 12 + localtime.tm_mon
day = 0

begin_year = int(localtime.tm_year) - year
end_year = begin_year + year

# calculate the days
for y in range(begin_year, end_year):
    if (judge_leap_year(y)):
        day = day + 366
        day = day + 365

leap_year = judge_leap_year(localtime.tm_year)
for m in range(1, localtime.tm_mon):
    day = day + month_days(m, leap_year)

day = day + localtime.tm_mday
print("%s's age is %d years or " % (name, year), end="")
print("%d months or %d days" % (month, day))
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9. Organized download folder with different categories

import os
import shutil

#check number of files in  directory
files = os.listdir()

#list of extension (You can add more if you want)
extentions = {
    "images": [".jpg", ".png", ".jpeg", ".gif"],
    "videos": [".mp4", ".mkv"],
    "musics": [".mp3", ".wav"],
    "zip": [".zip", ".tgz", ".rar", ".tar"],
    "documents": [".pdf", ".docx", ".csv", ".xlsx", ".pptx", ".doc", ".ppt", ".xls"],
    "setup": [".msi", ".exe"],
    "programs": [".py", ".c", ".cpp", ".php", ".C", ".CPP"],
    "design": [".xd", ".psd"]


#sort to specific folder depend on extenstions
def sorting(file):
    keys = list(extentions.keys())
    for key in keys:
        for ext in extentions[key]:
            # print(ext)
            if file.endswith(ext):
                return key

#iterat through each file
for file in files:
    dist = sorting(file)
    if dist:
            shutil.move(file, "../download-sorting/" + dist)
            print(file + " is already exist")
            shutil.move(file, "../download-sorting/others")
            print(file + " is already exist")
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10. Send Emails in Bulk From CSV File

import csv
from email.message import EmailMessage
import smtplib

def get_credentials(filepath):
    with open("credentials.txt", "r") as f:
        email_address = f.readline()
        email_pass = f.readline()
    return (email_address, email_pass)

def login(email_address, email_pass, s):
    # start TLS for security
    # Authentication
    s.login(email_address, email_pass)

def send_mail():
    s = smtplib.SMTP("smtp.gmail.com", 587)
    email_address, email_pass = get_credentials("./credentials.txt")
    login(email_address, email_pass, s)

    # message to be sent
    subject = "Welcome to Python"
    body = """Python is an interpreted, high-level,
    general-purpose programming language.\n
    Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991,
    Python's design philosophy emphasizes code readability\n
    with its notable use of significant whitespace"""

    message = EmailMessage()
    message['Subject'] = subject

    with open("emails.csv", newline="") as csvfile:
        spamreader = csv.reader(csvfile, delimiter=" ", quotechar="|")
        for email in spamreader:
            s.send_message(email_address, email[0], message)
            print("Send To " + email[0])

    # terminating the session

if __name__ == "__main__":
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11. Get the IP Address and Hostname of A Website

# Get Ipaddress and Hostname of Website
# importing socket library
import socket

def get_hostname_IP():
    hostname = input("Please enter website address(URL):")
        print (f'Hostname: {hostname}')
        print (f'IP: {socket.gethostbyname(hostname)}')
    except socket.gaierror as error:
        print (f'Invalid Hostname, error raised is {error}')

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12. Terminal Progress Bar

from tqdm import tqdm
from PIL import Image
import os
from time import sleep

def Resize_image(size, image):
    if os.path.isfile(image):
            im = Image.open(image)
            im.thumbnail(size, Image.ANTIALIAS)
            im.save("resize/" + str(image) + ".jpg")
        except Exception as ex:
            print(f"Error: {str(ex)} to {image}")

path = input("Enter Path to images : ")
size = input("Size Height , Width : ")
size = tuple(map(int, size.split(",")))


list_images = os.listdir(path)
if "resize" not in list_images:

for image in tqdm(list_images, desc="Resizing Images"):
    Resize_image(size, image)
print("Resizing Completed!")
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13. Wifi Password Ejector

import subprocess

data = (
    subprocess.check_output(["netsh", "wlan", "show", "profiles"])
profiles = [i.split(":")[1][1:-1] for i in data if "All User Profile" in i]
for i in profiles:
    results = (
        .check_output(["netsh", "wlan", "show", "profile", i, "key=clear"])
    results = [b.split(":")[1][1:-1] for b in results if "Key Content" in b]
        print("{:<30}|  {:<}".format(i, results[0]))
    except IndexError:
        print("{:<30}|  {:<}".format(i, ""))
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14. Snapshot of The Given Website

import sys
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options import Options
import chromedriver_binary

script_name = sys.argv[0]

options = Options()
driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)

    url = sys.argv[1]

    page_width = driver.execute_script('return document.body.scrollWidth')
    page_height = driver.execute_script('return document.body.scrollHeight')
    driver.set_window_size(page_width, page_height)

except IndexError:
    print('Usage: %s URL' % script_name)
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15. Split Files Into Chunks

import sys
import os
import shutil
import pandas as pd

class Split_Files:
        Class file for split file program
    def __init__(self, filename, split_number):
            Getting the file name and the split index
            Initializing the output directory, if present then truncate it.
            Getting the file extension
        self.file_name = filename
        self.directory = "file_split"
        self.split = int(split_number)
        if os.path.exists(self.directory):
        if self.file_name.endswith('.txt'):
            self.file_extension = '.txt'
            self.file_extension = '.csv'
        self.file_number = 1

    def split_data(self):
            spliting the input csv/txt file according to the index provided
        data = pd.read_csv(self.file_name, header=None)
        data.index += 1

        split_frame = pd.DataFrame()
        output_file = f"{self.directory}/split_file{self.file_number}{self.file_extension}"

        for i in range(1, len(data)+1):
            split_frame = split_frame.append(data.iloc[i-1])
            if i % self.split == 0:
                output_file = f"{self.directory}/split_file{self.file_number}{self.file_extension}"
                if self.file_extension == '.txt':
                    split_frame.to_csv(output_file, header=False, index=False, sep=' ')
                    split_frame.to_csv(output_file, header=False, index=False)
                split_frame.drop(split_frame.index, inplace=True)
                self.file_number += 1
        if not split_frame.empty:
            output_file = f"{self.directory}/split_file{self.file_number}{self.file_extension}"
            split_frame.to_csv(output_file, header=False, index=False)

if __name__ == '__main__':
    file, split_number = sys.argv[1], sys.argv[2]
    sp = Split_Files(file, split_number)
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16. Encrypt and Decrypt Texts

from Crypto.Cipher import AES
from Crypto import Random
from binascii import b2a_hex
import sys

# get the plaintext
plain_text = sys.argv[1]

# The key length must be 16 (AES-128), 24 (AES-192), or 32 (AES-256) Bytes.
key = b'this is a 16 key'

# Generate a non-repeatable key vector with a length
# equal to the size of the AES block
iv = Random.new().read(AES.block_size)

# Use key and iv to initialize AES object, use MODE_CFB mode
mycipher = AES.new(key, AES.MODE_CFB, iv)

# Add iv (key vector) to the beginning of the encrypted ciphertext
# and transmit it together
ciphertext = iv + mycipher.encrypt(plain_text.encode())

# To decrypt, use key and iv to generate a new AES object
mydecrypt = AES.new(key, AES.MODE_CFB, ciphertext[:16])

# Use the newly generated AES object to decrypt the encrypted ciphertext
decrypttext = mydecrypt.decrypt(ciphertext[16:])

# output
file_out = open("encrypted.bin", "wb")

print("The key k is: ", key)
print("iv is: ", b2a_hex(ciphertext)[:16])
print("The encrypted data is: ", b2a_hex(ciphertext)[16:])
print("The decrypted data is: ", decrypttext.decode())
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17. Capture Screenshots At Regular Intervals of Time

import os
import argparse
import pyautogui
import time

parser = argparse.ArgumentParser()

parser.add_argument("-p", "--path", help="absolute path to store screenshot.", default=r"./images")
parser.add_argument("-t", "--type", help="h (in hour) or m (in minutes) or s (in seconds)", default='h')
parser.add_argument("-f", "--frequency", help="frequency for taking screenshot per h/m/s.", default=1, type=int)

args = parser.parse_args()

sec = 0.

if args.type == 'h':
    sec = 60 * 60 / args.frequency
elif args.type == 'm':
    sec = 60 / args.frequency

if sec < 1.:
    sec = 1.

if os.path.isdir(args.path) != True:

    while True:
        t = time.localtime()
        current_time = time.strftime("%H_%M_%S", t)
        file = current_time + ".jpg"
        image = pyautogui.screenshot(os.path.join(args.path,file))
        print(f"{file} saved successfully.\n")

except KeyboardInterrupt:
    print("End of script by user interrupt")
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18. Decimal to Binary converter

    menu = int(input("Choose an option: \n 1. Decimal to binary \n 2. Binary to decimal\n Option: "))
    if menu < 1 or menu > 2:
        raise ValueError
    if menu == 1:
        dec = int(input("Input your decimal number:\nDecimal: "))
        print("Binary: {}".format(bin(dec)[2:]))
    elif menu == 2:
        binary = input("Input your binary number:\n Binary: ")
        print("Decimal: {}".format(int(binary, 2)))
except ValueError:
    print ("please choose a valid option")
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19. CLI Todo App

import click

def todo(ctx):
    '''Simple CLI Todo App'''
    #Open todo.txt – first line contains latest ID, rest contain tasks and IDs
    with open('./todo.txt') as f:
        content = f.readlines()
    #Transfer data from todo.txt to the context
    ctx.obj['LATEST'] = int(content[:1][0])
    ctx.obj['TASKS'] = {en.split('```

')[0]:en.split('')[1][:-1] for en in content[1:]}

def tasks(ctx):
    '''Display tasks'''
    if ctx.obj['TASKS']:
        click.echo('YOUR TASKS\n**********')
        #Iterate through all the tasks stored in the context
        for i, task in ctx.obj['TASKS'].items():
            click.echo('• ' + task + ' (ID: ' + i + ')')
        click.echo('No tasks yet! Use ADD to add one.\n')

@click.option('-add', '--add_task', prompt='Enter task to add')
def add(ctx, add_task):
    '''Add a task'''
    if add_task:
        #Add task to list in context 
        ctx.obj['TASKS'][ctx.obj['LATEST']] = add_task
        click.echo('Added task "' + add_task + '" with ID ' + str(ctx.obj['LATEST']))
        #Open todo.txt and write current index and tasks with IDs (separated by "

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{% endraw %}
curr_ind = [str(ctx.obj['LATEST'] + 1)]
tasks = [str(i) + '
{% raw %}

' + t for (i, t) in ctx.obj['TASKS'].items()]
        with open('./todo.txt', 'w') as f:
            f.writelines(['%s\n' % en for en in curr_ind + tasks])

@click.option('-fin', '--fin_taskid', prompt='Enter ID of task to finish', type=int)
def done(ctx, fin_taskid):
    '''Delete a task by ID'''
    #Find task with associated ID
    if str(fin_taskid) in ctx.obj['TASKS'].keys():
        task = ctx.obj['TASKS'][str(fin_taskid)]
        #Delete task from task list in context
        del ctx.obj['TASKS'][str(fin_taskid)]
        click.echo('Finished and removed task "' + task + '" with id ' + str(fin_taskid))
        #Open todo.txt and write current index and tasks with IDs (separated by "

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{% endraw %}
if ctx.obj['TASKS']:
curr_ind = [str(ctx.obj['LATEST'] + 1)]
tasks = [str(i) + '
{% raw %}

' + t for (i, t) in ctx.obj['TASKS'].items()]
            with open('./todo.txt', 'w') as f:
                f.writelines(['%s\n' % en for en in curr_ind + tasks])
            #Resets ID tracker to 0 if list is empty
            with open('./todo.txt', 'w') as f:
                f.writelines([str(0) + '\n'])
        click.echo('Error: no task with id ' + str(fin_taskid))

if __name__ == '__main__':

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20. Currency Converter

import requests 
import json
import sys
from pprint import pprint

# The below 4 lines bring out the value of currency from the api at fixer.io.  I had to register there, the key is unique to me.
url = "http://data.fixer.io/api/latest?access_key=33ec7c73f8a4eb6b9b5b5f95118b2275"
data = requests.get(url).text
data2 = json.loads(data) #brings whether request was successful,timestamp etc
fx = data2["rates"]

currencies = [
    "AED : Emirati Dirham,United Arab Emirates Dirham",
    "AFN : Afghan Afghani,Afghanistan Afghani",
    "ALL : Albanian Lek,Albania Lek",
    "AMD : Armenian Dram,Armenia Dram",
    "ANG : Dutch Guilder,Netherlands Antilles Guilder,Bonaire,Cura&#231;ao,Saba,Sint Eustatius,Sint Maarten",
    "AOA : Angolan Kwanza,Angola Kwanza",
    "ARS : Argentine Peso,Argentina Peso,Islas Malvinas",
    "AUD : Australian Dollar,Australia Dollar,Christmas Island,Cocos (Keeling) Islands,Norfolk Island,Ashmore and Cartier Islands,Australian Antarctic Territory,Coral Sea Islands,Heard Island,McDonald Islands,Kiribati,Nauru",
    "AWG : Aruban or Dutch Guilder,Aruba Guilder",
    "AZN : Azerbaijan Manat,Azerbaijan Manat",
    "BAM : Bosnian Convertible Mark,Bosnia and Herzegovina Convertible Mark",
    "BBD : Barbadian or Bajan Dollar,Barbados Dollar",
    "BDT : Bangladeshi Taka,Bangladesh Taka",
    "BGN : Bulgarian Lev,Bulgaria Lev",
    "BHD : Bahraini Dinar,Bahrain Dinar",
    "BIF : Burundian Franc,Burundi Franc",
    "BMD : Bermudian Dollar,Bermuda Dollar",
    "BND : Bruneian Dollar,Brunei Darussalam Dollar",
    "BOB : Bolivian Bol&#237;viano,Bolivia Bol&#237;viano",
    "BRL : Brazilian Real,Brazil Real",
    "BSD : Bahamian Dollar,Bahamas Dollar",
    "BTC : Bitcoin,BTC, XBT",
    "BTN : Bhutanese Ngultrum,Bhutan Ngultrum",
    "BWP : Botswana Pula,Botswana Pula",
    "BYN : Belarusian Ruble,Belarus Ruble",
    "BYR : Belarusian Ruble,Belarus Ruble",
    "BZD : Belizean Dollar,Belize Dollar",
    "CAD : Canadian Dollar,Canada Dollar",
    "CDF : Congolese Franc,Congo/Kinshasa Franc",
    "CHF : Swiss Franc,Switzerland Franc,Liechtenstein,Campione d&#039;Italia,B&#252;singen am Hochrhein",
    "CLF : Chilean Unit of Account",
    "CLP : Chilean Peso,Chile Peso",
    "CNY : Chinese Yuan Renminbi,China Yuan Renminbi",
    "COP : Colombian Peso,Colombia Peso",
    "CRC : Costa Rican Colon,Costa Rica Colon",
    "CUC : Cuban Convertible Peso,Cuba Convertible Peso",
    "CUP : Cuban Peso,Cuba Peso",
    "CVE : Cape Verdean Escudo,Cape Verde Escudo",
    "CZK : Czech Koruna,Czech Republic Koruna",
    "DJF : Djiboutian Franc,Djibouti Franc",
    "DKK : Danish Krone,Denmark Krone,Faroe Islands,Greenland",
    "DOP : Dominican Peso,Dominican Republic Peso",
    "DZD : Algerian Dinar,Algeria Dinar",
    "EGP : Egyptian Pound,Egypt Pound,Gaza Strip",
    "ERN : Eritrean Nakfa,Eritrea Nakfa",
    "ETB : Ethiopian Birr,Ethiopia Birr,Eritrea",
    "EUR : Euro,Euro Member Countries,Andorra,Austria,Azores,Baleares (Balearic Islands),Belgium,Canary Islands,Cyprus,Finland,France,French Guiana,French Southern Territories,Germany,Greece,Guadeloupe,Holland (Netherlands),Holy See (Vatican City),Ireland (Eire),Italy,Luxembourg,Madeira Islands,Malta,Monaco,Montenegro,Netherlands",
    "FJD : Fijian Dollar,Fiji Dollar",
    "FKP : Falkland Island Pound,Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Pound",
    "GBP : British Pound,United Kingdom Pound,United Kingdom (UK),England,Northern Ireland,Scotland,Wales,Falkland Islands,Gibraltar,Guernsey,Isle of Man,Jersey,Saint Helena and Ascension,South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands,Tristan da Cunha",
    "GEL : Georgian Lari,Georgia Lari",
    "GGP : Guernsey Pound,Guernsey Pound",
    "GHS : Ghanaian Cedi,Ghana Cedi",
    "GIP : Gibraltar Pound,Gibraltar Pound",
    "GMD : Gambian Dalasi,Gambia Dalasi",
    "GNF : Guinean Franc,Guinea Franc",
    "GTQ : Guatemalan Quetzal,Guatemala Quetzal",
    "GYD : Guyanese Dollar,Guyana Dollar",
    "HKD : Hong Kong Dollar,Hong Kong Dollar",
    "HNL : Honduran Lempira,Honduras Lempira",
    "HRK : Croatian Kuna,Croatia Kuna",
    "HTG : Haitian Gourde,Haiti Gourde",
    "HUF : Hungarian Forint,Hungary Forint",
    "IDR : Indonesian Rupiah,Indonesia Rupiah,East Timor",
    "ILS : Israeli Shekel,Israel Shekel,Palestinian Territories",
    "IMP : Isle of Man Pound,Isle of Man Pound",
    "INR : Indian Rupee,India Rupee,Bhutan,Nepal",
    "IQD : Iraqi Dinar,Iraq Dinar",
    "IRR : Iranian Rial,Iran Rial",
    "ISK : Icelandic Krona,Iceland Krona",
    "JEP : Jersey Pound,Jersey Pound",
    "JMD : Jamaican Dollar,Jamaica Dollar",
    "JOD : Jordanian Dinar,Jordan Dinar",
    "JPY : Japanese Yen,Japan Yen",
    "KES : Kenyan Shilling,Kenya Shilling",
    "KGS : Kyrgyzstani Som,Kyrgyzstan Som",
    "KHR : Cambodian Riel,Cambodia Riel",
    "KMF : Comorian Franc,Comorian Franc",
    "KPW : North Korean Won,Korea (North) Won",
    "KRW : South Korean Won,Korea (South) Won",
    "KWD : Kuwaiti Dinar,Kuwait Dinar",
    "KYD : Caymanian Dollar,Cayman Islands Dollar",
    "KZT : Kazakhstani Tenge,Kazakhstan Tenge",
    "LAK : Lao Kip,Laos Kip",
    "LBP : Lebanese Pound,Lebanon Pound",
    "LKR : Sri Lankan Rupee,Sri Lanka Rupee",
    "LRD : Liberian Dollar,Liberia Dollar",
    "LSL : Basotho Loti,Lesotho Loti",
    "LTL : Lithuanian litas",
    "LVL : Latvia Lats",
    "LYD : Libyan Dinar,Libya Dinar",
    "MAD : Moroccan Dirham,Morocco Dirham,Western Sahara",
    "MDL : Moldovan Leu,Moldova Leu",
    "MGA : Malagasy Ariary,Madagascar Ariary",
    "MKD : Macedonian Denar,Macedonia Denar",
    "MMK : Burmese Kyat,Myanmar (Burma) Kyat",
    "MNT : Mongolian Tughrik,Mongolia Tughrik",
    "MOP : Macau Pataca,Macau Pataca",
    "MRU : Mauritanian Ouguiya,Mauritania Ouguiya",
    "MUR : Mauritian Rupee,Mauritius Rupee",
    "MVR : Maldivian Rufiyaa,Maldives (Maldive Islands) Rufiyaa",
    "MWK : Malawian Kwacha,Malawi Kwacha",
    "MXN : Mexican Peso,Mexico Peso",
    "MYR : Malaysian Ringgit,Malaysia Ringgit",
    "MZN : Mozambican Metical,Mozambique Metical",
    "NAD : Namibian Dollar,Namibia Dollar",
    "NGN : Nigerian Naira,Nigeria Naira",
    "NIO : Nicaraguan Cordoba,Nicaragua Cordoba",
    "NOK : Norwegian Krone,Norway Krone,Bouvet Island,Svalbard,Jan Mayen,Queen Maud Land,Peter I Island",
    "NPR : Nepalese Rupee,Nepal Rupee,India (unofficially near India-Nepal border)",
    "NZD : New Zealand Dollar,New Zealand Dollar,Cook Islands,Niue,Pitcairn Islands,Tokelau",
    "OMR : Omani Rial,Oman Rial",
    "PAB : Panamanian Balboa,Panama Balboa",
    "PEN : Peruvian Sol,Peru Sol",
    "PGK : Papua New Guinean Kina,Papua New Guinea Kina",
    "PHP : Philippine Peso,Philippines Peso",
    "PKR : Pakistani Rupee,Pakistan Rupee",
    "PLN : Polish Zloty,Poland Zloty",
    "PYG : Paraguayan Guarani,Paraguay Guarani",
    "QAR : Qatari Riyal,Qatar Riyal",
    "RON : Romanian Leu,Romania Leu",
    "RSD : Serbian Dinar,Serbia Dinar",
    "RUB : Russian Ruble,Russia Ruble,Tajikistan,Abkhazia,South Ossetia",
    "RWF : Rwandan Franc,Rwanda Franc",
    "SAR : Saudi Arabian Riyal,Saudi Arabia Riyal",
    "SBD : Solomon Islander Dollar,Solomon Islands Dollar",
    "SCR : Seychellois Rupee,Seychelles Rupee",
    "SDG : Sudanese Pound,Sudan Pound",
    "SEK : Swedish Krona,Sweden Krona",
    "SGD : Singapore Dollar,Singapore Dollar",
    "SHP : Saint Helenian Pound,Saint Helena Pound",
    "SLL : Sierra Leonean Leone,Sierra Leone Leone",
    "SOS : Somali Shilling,Somalia Shilling",
    "SRD : Surinamese Dollar,Suriname Dollar",
    "STN : Sao Tomean Dobra,S&#227;o Tom&#233; and Pr&#237;ncipe Dobra",
    "SVC : Salvadoran Colon,El Salvador Colon",
    "SYP : Syrian Pound,Syria Pound",
    "SZL : Swazi Lilangeni,eSwatini Lilangeni",
    "THB : Thai Baht,Thailand Baht",
    "TJS : Tajikistani Somoni,Tajikistan Somoni",
    "TMT : Turkmenistani Manat,Turkmenistan Manat",
    "TND : Tunisian Dinar,Tunisia Dinar",
    "TOP : Tongan Pa&#039;anga,Tonga Pa&#039;anga",
    "TRY : Turkish Lira,Turkey Lira,North Cyprus",
    "TTD : Trinidadian Dollar,Trinidad and Tobago Dollar,Trinidad,Tobago",
    "TWD : Taiwan New Dollar,Taiwan New Dollar",
    "TZS : Tanzanian Shilling,Tanzania Shilling",
    "UAH : Ukrainian Hryvnia,Ukraine Hryvnia",
    "UGX : Ugandan Shilling,Uganda Shilling",
    "USD : US Dollar,United States Dollar,America,American Samoa,American Virgin Islands,British Indian Ocean Territory,British Virgin Islands,Ecuador,El Salvador,Guam,Haiti,Micronesia,Northern Mariana Islands,Palau,Panama,Puerto Rico,Turks and Caicos Islands,United States Minor Outlying Islands,Wake Island,East Timor",
    "UYU : Uruguayan Peso,Uruguay Peso",
    "UZS : Uzbekistani Som,Uzbekistan Som",
    "VEF : Venezuelan Bol&#237;var,Venezuela Bol&#237;var",
    "VND : Vietnamese Dong,Viet Nam Dong",
    "VUV : Ni-Vanuatu Vatu,Vanuatu Vatu",
    "WST : Samoan Tala,Samoa Tala",
    "XAF : Central African CFA Franc BEAC,Communaut&#233; Financi&#232;re Africaine (BEAC) CFA Franc BEAC,Cameroon,Central African Republic,Chad,Congo/Brazzaville,Equatorial Guinea,Gabon",
    "XAG : Silver Ounce,Silver",
    "XAU : Gold Ounce,Gold",
    "XCD : East Caribbean Dollar,East Caribbean Dollar,Anguilla,Antigua and Barbuda,Dominica,Grenada,The Grenadines and Saint Vincent,Montserrat",
    "XDR : IMF Special Drawing Rights,International Monetary Fund (IMF) Special Drawing Rights",
    "XOF : CFA Franc,Communaut&#233; Financi&#232;re Africaine (BCEAO) Franc,Benin,Burkina Faso,Ivory Coast,Guinea-Bissau,Mali,Niger,Senegal,Togo",
    "XPF : CFP Franc,Comptoirs Fran&#231;ais du Pacifique (CFP) Franc,French Polynesia,New Caledonia,Wallis and Futuna Islands",
    "YER : Yemeni Rial,Yemen Rial",
    "ZAR : South African Rand,South Africa Rand,Lesotho,Namibia",
    "ZMK : Zambian Kwacha,Zambia Kwacha",
    "ZMW : Zambian Kwacha,Zambia Kwacha",
    "ZWL : Zimbabwean Dollar,Zimbabwe Dollar",

# The below function calculates the actual conversion
def function1():
    query = input(
        "Please specify the amount of currency to convert, from currency, to currency (with space in between).\nPress SHOW to see list of currencies available. \nPress Q to quit. \n"
    if query == "Q":
    elif query == "SHOW":
        qty, fromC, toC = query.split(" ")
        fromC = fromC.upper()
        toC = toC.upper()
        qty = float(round(int(qty), 2))
        amount = round(qty * fx[toC] / fx[fromC], 2)
        print(f"{qty} of currency {fromC} amounts to {amount} of currency {toC} today")

except KeyError:
    print("You seem to have inputted wrongly, retry!")

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21. Create a simple stopwatch

import tkinter as Tkinter
from datetime import datetime
counter = 0
running = False

def counter_label(label):
    def count():
        if running:
            global counter
            # To manage the intial delay. 
            if counter == 0:
                display = 'Ready!'
                tt = datetime.utcfromtimestamp(counter)
                string = tt.strftime('%H:%M:%S')
                display = string

            label['text'] = display

            # label.after(arg1, arg2) delays by 
            # first argument given in milliseconds 
            # and then calls the function given as second argument. 
            # Generally like here we need to call the 
            # function in which it is present repeatedly. 
            # Delays by 1000ms=1 seconds and call count again. 
            label.after(1000, count)
            counter += 1

    # Triggering the start of the counter. 

# start function of the stopwatch 
def Start(label):
    global running
    running = True
    start['state'] = 'disabled'
    stop['state'] = 'normal'
    reset['state'] = 'normal'

# Stop function of the stopwatch 
def Stop():
    global running
    start['state'] = 'normal'
    stop['state'] = 'disabled'
    reset['state'] = 'normal'
    running = False

# Reset function of the stopwatch 
def Reset(label):
    global counter
    counter = 0
    # If reset is pressed after pressing stop. 
    if not running:
        reset['state'] = 'disabled'
        label['text'] = '00:00:00'
    # If reset is pressed while the stopwatch is running. 
        label['text'] = '00:00:00'

root = Tkinter.Tk()

# Fixing the window size.
root.minsize(width=250, height=70)
label = Tkinter.Label(root, text='Ready!', fg='black', font='Verdana 30 bold')
f = Tkinter.Frame(root)
start = Tkinter.Button(f, text='Start', width=6, command=lambda: Start(label))
stop = Tkinter.Button(f, text='Stop', width=6, state='disabled', command=Stop)
reset = Tkinter.Button(f, text='Reset', width=6, state='disabled', command=lambda: Reset(label))
f.pack(anchor='center', pady=5)

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22. Python script to compress folders and files

import zipfile
import sys
import os

# compress file function
def zip_file(file_path):
    compress_file = zipfile.ZipFile(file_path + '.zip', 'w')
    compress_file.write(path, compress_type=zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED)

# Declare the function to return all file paths of the particular directory
def retrieve_file_paths(dir_name):
    # setup file paths variable
    file_paths = []

    # Read all directory, subdirectories and file lists
    for root, directories, files in os.walk(dir_name):
        for filename in files:
            # Create the full file path by using os module.
            file_path = os.path.join(root, filename)

    # return all paths
    return file_paths

def zip_dir(dir_path, file_paths):
    # write files and folders to a zipfile
    compress_dir = zipfile.ZipFile(dir_path + '.zip', 'w')
    with compress_dir:
        # write each file separately
        for file in file_paths:

if __name__ == "__main__":
    path = sys.argv[1]

    if os.path.isdir(path):
        files_path = retrieve_file_paths(path)
        # print the list of files to be zipped
        print('The following list of files will be zipped:')
        for file_name in files_path:
        zip_dir(path, files_path)
    elif os.path.isfile(path):
        print('The %s will be zipped:' % path)
        print('a special file(socket,FIFO,device file), please input file or dir')

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23. Find IMDB Ratings

from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
import requests
import pandas as pd
import os

# Setting up session
s = requests.session()  

# List contaiting all the films for which data has to be scraped from IMDB
films = []

# Lists contaiting web scraped data
names = []
ratings = []
genres = []

# Define path where your films are present 
# For eg: "/Users/utkarsh/Desktop/films"
path = input("Enter the path where your films are: ")

# Films with extensions
filmswe = os.listdir(path)

for film in filmswe:
    # Append into my films list (without extensions)
    # print(os.path.splitext(film)[0])

for line in films:
    # x = line.split(", ")
    title = line.lower()
    # release = x[1]
    query = "+".join(title.split()) 
    URL = "https://www.imdb.com/search/title/?title=" + query
    # print(release)
        response = s.get(URL)

        #getting contect from IMDB Website
        content = response.content

        # print(response.status_code)

        soup = BeautifulSoup(response.content, features="html.parser") 
        #searching all films containers found
        containers = soup.find_all("div", class_="lister-item-content")
        for result in containers:
            name1 = result.h3.a.text
            name = result.h3.a.text.lower()

            # Uncomment below lines if you want year specific as well, define year variable before this 
            # year = result.h3.find(
            # "span", class_="lister-item-year text-muted unbold"
            # ).text.lower() 

            #if film found (searching using name)
            if title in name:
                #scraping rating
                rating = result.find("div",class_="inline-block ratings-imdb-rating")["data-value"]
                #scraping genre
                genre = result.p.find("span", class_="genre")
                genre = genre.contents[0]

                #appending name, rating and genre to individual lists

    except Exception:
        print("Try again with valid combination of tile and release year")

#storing in pandas dataframe
df = pd.DataFrame({'Film Name':names,'Rating':ratings,'Genre':genres}) 

#making csv using pandas
df.to_csv('film_ratings.csv', index=False, encoding='utf-8')

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24. Web Scrapping Youtube Comment

from selenium import webdriver
import csv
import time



driver.execute_script('window.scrollTo(1, 500);')

#now wait let load the comments

driver.execute_script('window.scrollTo(1, 3000);')

username_elems = driver.find_elements_by_xpath('//*[@id="author-text"]')
comment_elems = driver.find_elements_by_xpath('//*[@id="content-text"]')
for username, comment in zip(username_elems, comment_elems):
    item = {}
    item['Author'] = username.text
    item['Comment'] = comment.text
filename = 'C:/Users/hp/Desktop/commentlist.csv'
with open(filename, 'w', newline='', encoding='utf-8') as f: 
    w = csv.DictWriter(f,['Author','Comment']) 
    for item in items: 

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25. Text To Speech

from gtts import gTTS 
import os
file = open("abc.txt", "r").read()

speech = gTTS(text=file, lang='en', slow=False)

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Thank you for reading!

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