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Roshan Thapa
Roshan Thapa

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50 Linux Commands You Should Know

  • ls - list the files and directories in the current directory

  • cd - change the current directory

    cd dir_name
  • mkdir - create a new directory

    mkdir rohan
  • rmdir - remove a directory

    rmdir rohan
  • pwd - print the current working directory

  • cp - files or directories

    #We will a file called example.txt from the current directory to a directory called backup
    cp example.txt backup/
  • mv - move or rename files or directories

    mv example.txt backup/
  • rm - remove files or directories

    rm example.txt
  • touch - create a new empty file or update the timestamp of an existing file

    touch shayan.txt
  • cat - concatenate and display files

    cat example.txt
  • man - manual for a command

    man ls
  • htop - an interactive process viewer and system monitor

  • chmod - change the permissions of a file or directory

    # The first digit represents the owner of the file/directory
    # The second digit represents the group that the file/directory belongs to
    # The third digit represents all other users
    # 0 (no permission)
    # 1 (execute only)
    # 2 (write only)
    # 3 (write and execute)
    # 4 (read only)
    # 5 (read and execute)
    # 6 (read and write)
    # 7 (read, write, and execute)
    chmod 700 file.txt
  • chown - change the owner of a file or directory

    chown new_owner example.txt
  • tar - create or extract compressed archive files

    # x: extract files from an archive
    # t: list the contents of an archive
    # r: append files to an existing archive
    # z: use gzip compression
    # j: use bzip2 compression
    # cf: create file
    #xf: extract file
    tar cf archive.tar file1 file2 file3
  • gzip - compress files

    gzip file.txt
  • gunzip - decompress compressed files

    gunzip file.txt.gz
  • ssh - connect to a remote server securely

    ssh username@server_address
  • scp - securely files between systems

    scp myfile.txt user@remotehost:/home/user/
  • ping - test network connectivity

  • ifconfig - display or configure network interfaces

  • netstat - display network connection information

  • route - view or configure network routing tables

    route [options] [add/delete/show]
  • top - display system resource usage and processes

  • ps - display information about running processes

    ps aux
  • kill - terminate a process

    kill [PID]
  • systemctl - control system services and settings

    # Start the nginx service
    systemctl start nginx
    # Check the status of the nginx service
    systemctl status nginx
    # Stop the nginx service
    systemctl stop nginx
  • service - control system services

    service apache2 start
  • useradd - add a new user to the system

    useradd roshan
  • passwd - change the password for a user

    passwd roshan
  • userdel - delete a user from the system

    userdel roshan
  • su - switch user to become another user

    su john
  • sudo - execute a command as another user or with elevated privileges

  • uptime - display system uptime and load average

  • df - display disk space usage

  • du - display disk usage by file or directory

  • mount - mount a file system

    sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usb
  • umount - unmount a file system

    sudo umount /mnt/usb
  • date - display or set the system date and time

  • whoami - display the current user name

  • which - locate a program or command in the system path

  • finger - displays all the information about user

    finger roshan
  • uname - display system information

    uname -a
  • history - display a list of previously executed commands

  • echo - display text or variables to the console

    echo 'I need Tshirt from codeswear!'
  • tee - redirect output to both a file and the console

    $ ls | tee file.txt
  • locate - locate any file on the system

    locate file.txt
  • sort - sort lines of text in a file or input

    cat file.txt
    sort file.txt
  • uniq - remove duplicate lines from a file or input

    cat file.txt
    uniq file.txt
  • head/tail - display the first/last few lines of a file or input

    #display first 10 lines
    head file.txt
    #display last 10 lines
    tail file.txt

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