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Cover image for 50 Linux Commands You Should Know
Roshan Thapa
Roshan Thapa

Posted on

50 Linux Commands You Should Know

  • ls - list the files and directories in the current directory

    ls
    
    
  • cd - change the current directory

    cd dir_name
    
    
  • mkdir - create a new directory

    mkdir rohan
    
    
  • rmdir - remove a directory

    rmdir rohan
    
    
  • pwd - print the current working directory

    pwd
    
    
  • cp - files or directories

    #We will a file called example.txt from the current directory to a directory called backup
    cp example.txt backup/
    
    
  • mv - move or rename files or directories

    mv example.txt backup/
    
    
  • rm - remove files or directories

    rm example.txt
    
    
  • touch - create a new empty file or update the timestamp of an existing file

    touch shayan.txt
    
    
  • cat - concatenate and display files

    cat example.txt
    
    
  • man - manual for a command

    man ls
    
    
  • htop - an interactive process viewer and system monitor

    htop
    
    
  • chmod - change the permissions of a file or directory

    # The first digit represents the owner of the file/directory
    # The second digit represents the group that the file/directory belongs to
    # The third digit represents all other users
    # 0 (no permission)
    # 1 (execute only)
    # 2 (write only)
    # 3 (write and execute)
    # 4 (read only)
    # 5 (read and execute)
    # 6 (read and write)
    # 7 (read, write, and execute)
    
    chmod 700 file.txt
    
    
  • chown - change the owner of a file or directory

    chown new_owner example.txt
    
    
  • tar - create or extract compressed archive files

    # x: extract files from an archive
    # t: list the contents of an archive
    # r: append files to an existing archive
    # z: use gzip compression
    # j: use bzip2 compression
    # cf: create file
    #xf: extract file
    tar cf archive.tar file1 file2 file3
    
    
  • gzip - compress files

    gzip file.txt
    
    
  • gunzip - decompress compressed files

    gunzip file.txt.gz
    
    
  • ssh - connect to a remote server securely

    ssh username@server_address
    
    
  • scp - securely files between systems

    scp myfile.txt user@remotehost:/home/user/
    
    
  • ping - test network connectivity

    ping 8.8.8.8
    
    
  • ifconfig - display or configure network interfaces

    ifconfig
    
    
  • netstat - display network connection information

    netstat
    
    
  • route - view or configure network routing tables

    route [options] [add/delete/show]
    
    
  • top - display system resource usage and processes

    top
    
    
  • ps - display information about running processes

    ps aux
    
    
  • kill - terminate a process

    kill [PID]
    
    
  • systemctl - control system services and settings

    # Start the nginx service
    systemctl start nginx
    
    # Check the status of the nginx service
    systemctl status nginx
    
    # Stop the nginx service
    systemctl stop nginx
    
    
  • service - control system services

    service apache2 start
    
    
  • useradd - add a new user to the system

    useradd roshan
    
    
  • passwd - change the password for a user

    passwd roshan
    
    
  • userdel - delete a user from the system

    userdel roshan
    
    
  • su - switch user to become another user

    su john
    
    
  • sudo - execute a command as another user or with elevated privileges

    sudo
    
    
  • uptime - display system uptime and load average

    uptime
    
    
  • df - display disk space usage

    df
    
    
  • du - display disk usage by file or directory

    du
    
    
  • mount - mount a file system

    sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usb
    
    
  • umount - unmount a file system

    sudo umount /mnt/usb
    
    
  • date - display or set the system date and time

    date
    
    
  • whoami - display the current user name

    whoami
    
    
  • which - locate a program or command in the system path

    ls
    
    
  • finger - displays all the information about user

    finger roshan
    
    
  • uname - display system information

    uname
    uname -a
    
    
  • history - display a list of previously executed commands

    history
    
    
  • echo - display text or variables to the console

    echo 'I need Tshirt from codeswear!'
    
    
  • tee - redirect output to both a file and the console

    $ ls | tee file.txt
    
    
  • locate - locate any file on the system

    locate file.txt
    
    
  • sort - sort lines of text in a file or input

    cat file.txt
    banana
    orange
    apple
    sort file.txt
    apple
    banana
    orange
    
    
  • uniq - remove duplicate lines from a file or input

    cat file.txt
    apple
    orange
    banana
    apple
    banana
    uniq file.txt
    apple
    orange
    banana
    
    
  • head/tail - display the first/last few lines of a file or input

    #display first 10 lines
    head file.txt
    
    #display last 10 lines
    tail file.txt
    
    

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